There are two different coordinate base systems in different files: 0-base and 1-base. Different files use different base systems, and sometimes it causes confusions (especially when one tries to calculate the length of the region). Here I show the differences in two systems, and summarize several file formats that use both sytems.
0-base system: the first base is 0. You represent a region as [a, b). This is also called "half-close-half-open", "0-base end exclusive", or "1-base end inclusive". When calculating the length of the region, subtract a from b directly:
1-base system: the first base is 1, and you represent a region as [a,b]. When calculating the length of the region, don't forget to add 1:
Here is an example. Suppose you want to represent a region of X in the following sequence:
In the 0-base system, this is represented as [3,6), and the length is 6-3=3. In the 1-base system, use [4, 6], and the length is 6-4+1=3.